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This activity occurs on a regular basis and may be an officially scheduled meeting or an ongoing activity. Some of the activities that occur during this refinement of the backlog include:. Due to the increasingly negative connotation of the word groomingthis activity is increasingly known as backlog refinement or backlog management.
Grooming was originally used to reflect an organic approach to maintaining the backlog: the intended imagery is that of trimming, pruning, cleaning, as with a plant. The intent of backlog refinement is to ensure that the backlog remains populated with items that are relevant, detailed and estimated to a degree appropriate with their priority, and in keeping with current understanding of the project or product and its objectives. In the absence of explicit efforts aimed at managing this inflation, this inflation would result in the too well known pathologies of schedule and budget overruns.
Welcome Username. Remember Me. Forgot Password. Not a Member or Subscriber? Backlog Refinement. Some of the activities that occur during this refinement of the backlog include: removing user stories that no longer appear relevant creating new user stories in response to newly discovered needs re-assessing the relative priority of stories assigning estimates to stories which have yet to receive one correcting estimates in light of newly discovered information splitting user stories which are high priority but too coarse grained to fit in an upcoming iteration.
Help Us Keep Definitions Updated. Let us know if we need to revise this Glossary Term.Child grooming is a term which describes the following situation.
When an adult becomes friends with a childthis is sometimes done for a reason. The reason is to lower the inhibitions of the child and to prepare for sexual abuse. So, action taken by an adult to form a trusting relationship with a child, with the intent of later having sexual contact, is 'child grooming'. The act of grooming a child may include activities that are legal, but later lead to sexual contact. The grooming is done to gain the child's trust, and the trust of those responsible for the child.
Children are less likely to report a crime if it involves someone the child knows, trusts, and cares about. Also, a relationship with the family means the child's parents will be less likely to believe any accusations.
Sexual grooming of children also occurs on the internet. Some abusers pose as children online and make arrangements to meet with them in person. InMSN implemented restrictions in their chat rooms purportedly intended to help protect children from adults seeking sexual conversations with them.
InYahoo! That October, Yahoo! An organization called Perverted-Justice known as PJ uses PJ operatives posing as underage teens on the internet to identify potential child molesters and turn the information over to the police and the courts.
An organization called Crisp Thinking has created an expert service providing social platforms and apps with the risk protection they need to protect their users from sexual exploitation, child abuse images and trolls. Another software company in the UK has developed a program that hold as competitor to Crisp, called Sentry Parental Controls.
It was launched by television personality Coleen Nolan and is supported by Mark Williams-Thomas, a leading expert in child protection. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Examples of grooming [ change change source ] Taking interest in someone's child having a "special" friend Giving gifts or money to the child for no obvious reason Showing pornography to the child - this is illegal in many countries Talking about sexual topics that are not age-appropriate Invading the child's privacy e.
Talking to the child about problems that would normally be discussed with adults e. Understanding child abuse and neglect. Sexual abuse of children: a human rights perspective.
The proscribed traffic was international in nature at that time.
The concept of localised groomingin which gangs groom neighbourhood victims, was defined in by the UK Child Exploitation and Online Protection Centre. To establish a good relationship with a child and the child's family, child groomers might do several things: They might try to gain the child's or parents' trust by befriending them, with the goal of easy access to the child.
Suspected offenders have used the so-called " fantasy defense ", the argument that they were only expressing fantasies and not plans of future behavior, to defend actions such as online communication. Sexual grooming of children also occurs on the Internet. Some abusers will pose as children online and make arrangements to meet with them in person.
The majority of targeted children are girls, and most victimization occurs with mobile-phone support. Children and teenagers with behavioral issues such as "high attention seeking" have a much higher risk than others. Facebook has been involved in controversy as to whether it takes enough precautions against the sexual grooming of children. A spokesman for Facebook responded to complaints by meeting CEOP directly in person, and said that they take safety issues "very seriously".
According to a report by the House of Commons Home Affairs Select Committeeafter the group's initial contact with the child, offers of treats takeaway food, cigarettes, drugs persuade the child to maintain the relationship. One abuser might present himself as the "boyfriend"; this person arranges for the child to have sex with other members of the group.
Children may end up having sex with dozens of these group members, and may be trafficked to connected groups in other towns. Offenders often act together, establishing a relationship with a child or children before sexually exploiting them. Abuse may occur at a number of locations within a region and on several occasions.
A television documentary was broadcast in Augustin which reporters uncovered details of an month police and social services investigation into allegations that young British Asian men were targeting under-age girls for sex, drugs and prostitution in the West Yorkshire town of Keighley. Inmembers of the Rochdale sex trafficking gang were convicted on various counts, and infollowing the largest child sexual exploitation investigation in the UK, "bigger than high profile cases in Rochdale and Rotherham",  18 men in the Halifax child sex abuse ring case were convicted to over years in prison.
InBBC Inside Out London investigated allegations made by members of the Sikh community that British Sikh girls living outside Britain such as in America were being targeted by men who pretend ed to be Sikhs in order to seduce and groom them.
Katy Sian of the University of York has disputed the allegations. In its report Protection of Children Against Abuse Through New Technologiesthe Council of Europe Cybercrime Convention Committee addressed the emerging issues of violence against children through the use of new technologies the issue of child pornography on the Internet is already covered by Article 9 Convention with particular reference to grooming both through the internet and by mobile telephones.
Some nations have already criminalized grooming in their national legislation. Australian Criminal Code Act section The various states and territories have similar laws, some of which use a different age for example the victim only has to be under 16 in Queensland. Such laws across Australia were recently strengthened in the wake of the murder of Carly Ryan.
In CanadaCriminal Code section In Costa Ricasince Aprilthe Criminal Code section bis, makes it an offence to seduce a child by electronic means. With penalties from one to 3 years of imprisonment for a person that, by any means attempts to establish an erotic or sexual communication with a child under 15 years old. On 1 Januarysection e was added to the Dutch Criminal Code making make it an offense to arrange online or by telephone a meeting with someone he knows or reasonably should assume to be a child under 16, with the intent of sexually abusing the child, as soon as any preparation for this meeting is made.
The maximum punishment is 2 years of imprisonment or a fine of the fourth category. The law in New Zealand states that it is a crime to meet up or intend to meet up with the intention of performing an unlawful sexual act with a person under 16 years.
This is recorded in Section B of the Crimes Act Any person charged is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years.Dog grooming refers to both the hygienic care and cleaning of a dogas well as a process by which a dog's physical appearance is enhanced for showing or other types of competition.
A dog groomer or simply "groomer" is a person who earns their living grooming dogs. Grooming is a vital part in the well-being and healthiness of a dog, which can improve its quality of life.
How much grooming a dog needs depends on its breed, age, and health. Regular grooming helps to ensure the dog is healthy and comfortable. While many dogs shedothers such as the poodledo not shed as profusely and require grooming every weeks. Dogs can be bathed in a sink, walk-in shower, or bathtub; they can even be bathed outside using a garden hose, provided that the water is sufficiently warm enough to prevent hypothermia. Dogs should be bathed with warm water, as hot water can scald the skin.
Dogs with a heavy or matted coat should never be bathed without first being completely brushed out or clipped of any mats.
Many types of shampoos and conditioners formulated for dogs are available. For dense and double-coated dogs, pre-mixing the shampoo with water will help ensure a more even distribution of the shampoo. Additionally, excess water may become trapped in the ear canal, leading to secondary ear infections. Most dogs do not require frequent bathing; shampooing a coat too often can strip the coat of its natural oils, causing it to dry out.
Dental care is very important and can be addressed while grooming. The dental kits available on the market include everything from special toothpaste to toothbrushes. Many models of toothbrushes include a flexible three-head design, which maintains the proper pressure on all surfaces of the tooth with every stroke.
These brushes have side bristles set at degree angles to reduce arm twisting and soft outer bristles for massaging the gums.What is PERSONAL GROOMING? What does PERSONAL GROOMING mean? PERSONAL GROOMING meaning
Toothpaste designed to be used on dogs is usually sugar free toothpaste with different flavoring. Foaming or rinsing is not necessary. Finishing touches can be added with finishing supplies, including perfumed sprays, ribbons and many other accessories. The coats of many breeds require trimming, cutting, or other attention. Styles vary by breed and discipline. While some hair removal has its origins in practical purposes, much is based on the taste of the owner, whether or not the dog will be shown, and what work the dog does.
The rubber grooming gloves and dog brushes are intended to drag loose hair from the short-coated dogs and are some of the most popular grooming tools amongst pet owners. They are easy to use by massaging the coat in firm strokes, and have the advantage of being suitable for both wet and dry coats.
Some breeds of dog, such as the Lhasa Apsodo not shed, but have hair that grows constantly. As such, the fur around the legs and belly can get very long and become matted, and the hair around the eyes can impair the dog's vision.
In such circumstances, hair trimming can be performed to keep the eyes clear and keep the coat free of knots. Stripping or hand-stripping is the process of pulling the dead hair out of the coat of a non-shedding dog, either by using a stripping knife or the fingers.Related to grooming: Child groomingPersonal grooming.
A person employed to take care of horses or a stable. To care for the appearance of; to make neat and trim: groomed himself carefully in front of the mirror. To remove dirt and parasites from the skin, fur, or feathers of another animal. To prepare, as for a specific position or purpose: groom an employee for advancement. Sports To prepare terrain for participants in a sport, as by packing down new snow and leveling moguls for skiers.
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References in periodicals archive? Forest fun: fee or free? A tug-of-war over recreation is brewing between public forests and private businesses.
Summary: This increase in pet adoption has significantly affected the growth of pet grooming gloves market. The Importance of a Stellar Groomer. Moving Grooming Mobile Pet Services LLC, which offers dog grooming and cat grooming to local pet owners, is teaming up with the online marketing specialists at Prospect Genius to enhance its Web presence.
Retailers can create a destination for shoppers with grooming products. Help Pets Spring into Spring. Global male grooming market rebounds in NEW YORK -- With dozens of health and beauty aids categories mired in a recession-related slump, men's grooming is one of the bright spots that retailers can count on to buoy sales. Marketers strike right chord. Gesturing of this type frequently occurs during social groomingcausing the provider to shift his activities to where the recipient scratched himself.
Chimps scratch out grooming requests. Summary: The global hair grooming market is growing at a modest pace and the trend is likely to continue over the next couple of years. The production of Bamboo Grooms' grooming tools has a very small environmental impact and leaves barely a trace behind. Dictionary browser? Full browser?Social grooming is a behavior in which social animalsincluding humansclean or maintain one another's body or appearance.
A related term, allogroomingindicates social grooming between members of the same species. Grooming is a major social activity, and a means by which animals who live in close proximity may bond and reinforce social structures, family links, and build companionships.
Social grooming is also used as a means of conflict resolutionmaternal behavior and reconciliation in some species. There are a variety of proposed mechanisms by which social grooming behavior has been hypothesized to increase fitness.
These evolutionary advantages may come in the form of health benefits including reduced disease transmission and reduced stress levels, maintaining social structure, and direct improvement of fitness as a measure of survival.
It is often argued as to whether the overarching importance of social grooming is to boost an organism's health and hygiene or whether the social side of social grooming plays an equally or more important role.
Traditionally, it is thought that the primary function of social grooming is the upkeep of an animal's hygiene. Evidence to support this statement involves the fact that allogrooming concentrates on body parts that are inaccessible by autogrooming and that the amount of time spent allogrooming regions did not vary significantly even if the body part had a more important social or communicatory function. Social grooming behaviour has been shown to elicit an array of health benefits in a variety of species.
For example, group member connection has the potential to mitigate the potentially harmful effects of stressors. In macaquessocial grooming has been proven to reduce heart rate. These ectoparasitic ticks carry the potential to act as vectors for the spreading of disease and infection by common tick-borne parasites such as haemoprotozoan. On the other hand, it could be argued that the hygienic aspect to allogrooming does not play an as important role as the social aspect to it.
Observational studies performed on 44 different primate species suggest that the number of times a species allogrooms, on average, correlates with its group size rather than with its body size. However, we see instead that when group size increases, members ensure that they spend an appropriate amount of time grooming everyone.
Hence, the fact that animals, particularly primates here, groom each other more frequently than necessary from a hygienic standpoint suggests that the social angle of allogrooming plays an equally, if not more, important role. Another point of evidence for the importance of the social aspect is that in comparison to how much and how a primate grooms itself autogroomingallogrooming involved longer periods of time and different techniques, some of which have connotations of being affectionate gestures.
One of the most critical functions of social grooming is to establish social networks and relationships. In primates especially, grooming is known to have major social significance and function in the formation and maintenance of these friendships. Social grooming may also serve to establish and recognize mates or amorous partners.
For example, in short-nosed fruit batsthe females initiate grooming with the males just before flight at dusk.Grooming also called preening is the art of cleaning and maintaining parts of the body. It is a species-typical behavior. Individual animals regularly clean themselves and put their fur, feathers or other skin coverings in good order. This activity is known as personal grooming, a form of hygiene.
Extracting foreign objects such as insectsleaves, dirttwigs and parasites,  are all forms of grooming. Among animals, birds spend considerable time preening their feathers. This is done to remove ectoparasiteskeep the feathers in good aerodynamic condition, and waterproof them. To do that, they use the preen oil secreted by the uropygial glandthe dust of down feathersor other means such as dust-bathing or anting.
During oil spillsanimal conservationists that rescue penguins sometimes dress them in knitted sweaters to stop them from preening and thereby ingesting the mineral oilwhich is poisonous. Monkeys may also pick out nits from their fur or scratch their rears to keep themselves clean.
Cats are well known for their extensive grooming. Cats groom so often that they often produce hairballs from the fur they ingest.
Many social animals adapt preening and grooming behaviors for other social purposes such as bonding and the strengthening of social structures. Grooming plays a particularly important role in forming social bonds in many primate species, such as chacma baboons and wedge-capped capuchins. In humankind, mutual grooming relates closely to social groomingwhich is defined as the process by which human beings fulfill one of their basic instincts, such as socializing, cooperating and learning from each other.
Hence, this study hypothesized that mutual grooming related to relationship satisfaction, trust and previous experience of affection within the family. They claim that even though humans do not groom each other with the same fervor that other species do, they are groomers par excellence.
Therefore, human mutual grooming plays an important role in pair bonding. In the same investigation, researchers found that individuals with more promiscuous attitudes and those who scored high on the anxiety sub-scale on an adult attachment style measure tend to groom their partners more frequently.
These findings were also consistent with some of the functions of grooming: potential parental indicator, developing trust and courtship or flirtation. A recent empirical study by Seinenu Thein-Lemelson University of California, Berkeley utilized an ethological approach to examine cross-cultural differences in human grooming as it pertains to caregiving behaviors.
Naturalistic data was collected through video focal follows with children during routine activities and then coded for grooming behaviors. This cross-cultural comparison of urban families in Burma and the United States indicates that there are significant cross-cultural differences in rates of caregiver-to-child grooming. Burmese caregivers in the sample groomed children more often than caregivers in the United States.
Additionally, children in the United States have short instances of concentrated grooming predominantly during daily activities that are structured explicitly around hygiene goals bath timein contrast to the Burmese child, whose grooming is distributed more evenly within and across daily activities. The Burmese parents maintained a constant vigilance with regard to risk of infection. The study is significant because it is the only study of human grooming to utilize naturalistic data.
A domesticated tortoiseshell cat grooming itself. Peregrine falcon preening its feathers. A house sparrow cleans itself in moving water while a mallard preens in the background. A flesh fly uses its legs to clean and maintain itself.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For preening in birds, see preening bird. Main article: Social grooming.